Penn State University Libraries


Penn State University Libraries

Utilizing In-text Citation

Add a citation that is in-text you relate to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another supply. For every single in-text citation in your paper, there has to be a matching entry in your guide list.

MLA in-text citation design uses mcdougal’s final title plus the web page quantity from where the quote or paraphrase is taken, as an example: (Smith 163). In the event that supply will not make use of web web web page figures, don’t consist of a quantity when you look at the citation that is parenthetical (Smith).

Example paragraph with in-text citation

A few researchers in the linguistics industry are suffering from training programs made to improve indigenous speakers’ power to understand accented speech (Derwing et al. 246; Thomas 15). Their training methods are derived from the study described above indicating that comprehension improves with experience of speech that is non-native. Derwing and others carried out their training with students preparing to be social employees, but remember that other experts who make use of non-native speakers could take advantage of a comparable system (258).


Derwing, Tracey M., et al. “Teaching Native Speakers to be controlled by Foreign-accented Speech.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, vol. 23, # 4, 2002, pp. 245-259.

Thomas, Holly K. Training Approaches For Improving Audience’ Comprehension of Foreign-accented Speech. University of Colorado, Boulder, 2004.

Citing Website Pages In Text

Cite website pages in text while you would just about any supply, making use of the writer if understood. In the event that writer is certainly not understood, make use of the name because the in-text citation.

Your in-text citation should lead your audience towards the corresponding entry in the guide list. Listed here are samples of utilizing citation that is in-text website pages.

Whole site with author: In-text citation moms and dads perform a crucial role in helping young ones discover approaches for dealing with bullying (Kraiser).

Guide entry Kraizer, Sherryll. Safe Child. Coalition for Children, 2011,

Web page without any author: In-text citation The expression Nittany Lion had been created by Penn State football player Joe Mason in 1904 (” everything Nittany”).

Guide entry “Things Nittany.” About Penn State. Penn State University, 2006,


In MLA design mcdougal’s title may be included either in the narrative text of one’s paper, or perhaps in parentheses following mention of the the origin.

Author’s title section of narrative:

Gass and Varonis discovered that the absolute most essential take into account understanding non-native message is knowledge of this issue (163).

Author’s title in parentheses:

One research discovered that the absolute most crucial aspect in understanding non-native message is knowledge of this issue (Gass and Varonis 163).

Group as writer: (United states Psychological Association 123)

Multiple works: (split each ongoing make use of semi-colons)

Studies have shown that hearing an accent that is particular comprehension of accented message as a whole (Gass and Varonis 143; Thomas 24).

Direct quote:

One research unearthed that “the listener’s understanding of the main topic of discourse significantly facilitates the interpretation of this entire message” (Gass and Varonis 85).

Gass and Varonis discovered that “the listener’s understanding of the main topic of discourse significantly facilitates the interpretation regarding the entire message” (85).

Note: For quotations which are significantly more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, display quotations as an indented block of text (one inches from left margin) and omit quote markings. Place your parenthetical citation by the end for the block of text, following the last punctuation mark.

Along with awareness-raising, exercising listening to accented message has been shown to enhance listening comprehension. This article recommends developing training that is listening for library faculty and staff, centered on research through the linguistics and language training areas. also exposure that is brief accented message will help audience enhance their comprehension, thus enhancing the degree of service to worldwide clients. (O’Malley 19)

Functions by Multiple Authors

Whenever citing functions numerous writers, constantly spell the word “and out.” Whenever a supply has three or higher writers, just the very first one shown into the supply is generally offered followed closely by et al.

One writer: (Field 399)

Functions Cited entry: Field, John. “Intelligibility additionally the Listener: The part of Lexical Stress.” TESOL Quarterly, vol. 39, no. 3, 2005, pp. 399-423.

Two writers: (Gass and Varonis 67)

Functions Cited entry: Gass, Susan, and Evangeline M. Varonis. “The effectation of Familiarity from the Comprehensibility of Nonnative Speech.” Language Learning, vol. 34, no. 1, 1984, pp. 65-89.

Three or even more writers: (Munro et al. 70)

Functions Cited entry: Munro, Murray J., et al. “Salient Accents, Covert Attitudes: Consciousness-raising for Pre-service 2nd Language Teachers.” Prospect, vol. 21, # 1, 2006, pp. 67-79.

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